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Q.3. Examine the problems faced by Pakistan just after the independence.


The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and arduous freedom movement, was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life. The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu and British dominance. Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August, 1947 said

My thoughts are those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had, including their lives to make Pakistan possible.

Initial Difficulties of Pakistan

From its very inception, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were

1. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.

2. Unfair Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Junagadh to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.

3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslims properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave India for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.

4. Division of Military and Financial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of honesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs. 750 million but the Indian Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.

5. Canal Water Dispute
Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries.

6. Kashmir Dispute
Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. The Hindu Dogra Rule, who was secretly with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.

7. Constitutional Problem
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.

8. Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of some states remained undecided. The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947.

Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.

9. Economic Problems
When Pakistan came into existence, it mostly consisted of economically backward and underdeveloped areas. The agricultural system was obsolete and outdated which added to the economic backwardness of the areas forming part of Pakistan. Before partition the Hindus, with the blessings of the British Government, had acquired complete monopoly in trade and commerce. The entire capital was in the hands of the Hindus. Unfortunately, the banks and other financial institutions were located in Indian territory. The major industries were also in those areas which were part of India. Besides these factors the technical experts and labourers, who operated the industries, were all Hindus because the Muslims extremely lagged behind in education and financial capabilities. The inadequate system of transportation and communication also made its adverse affect on economic development of the country. The railway system and river transportation in East Pakistan was in depleted condition. The roads were in shabby and irreparable condition. The communication and transportation system in West Pakistan, comparatively, was in better position. The power resources in the two wings were scarce and negligible which were insufficient to meet the national requirement.

10. Administrative Problems
Pakistan came into being under the most appalling conditions. The Government of Pakistan could not get enough time to set up workable administrative machinery because of the great difficulties created by Congress. The Indian Government adopted delaying tactics n transferring the Government servants and official record which aggravated the situation.

Therefore the immediate task before the nation was to establish a workable administrative and Government machinery to run the affairs of the newly born state. The biggest administrative problem facing Pakistan was the acute shortage of competent and experienced personnel in the Central and Provincial Governments. Furthermore, there weren’t enough chairs, tables or even stationary and paper pins for administrative purposes. However, Quaid-e-Azam paid his immediate attention towards setting up of administrative machinery and took a number of steps to overcome the administrative problems of the new state.

11. Constitutional Problem
At the time of establishment of Pakistan the Government of India Act 1935 became the working constitution of Pakistan with certain adaptions. But the need of a constitution framed by the elected representatives of the people was necessary for free people. So the first constituent assembly was formed and was given the task to frame the constitution for the country. But the constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of corrupt interference in democratic progress of Pakistan. On the other hand, the constituent assembly conferred extra ordinary powers on Governor General which afterwards led to future constitutional crisis.

12. Electricity Problem
Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to India and of unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said

If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force


Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances. It had no resources, it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-e-Azam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation. His golden principles Unity, Faith and Discipline gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country. In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948, he told the nation.

The foundation of your state has been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can.

Fahim Patel

By Fahim Patel

Fahim Patel is the Content Manager of guesspapers.net. A graduate from Karachi University, he has intensive experience in content production.