Q.4. Give a brief account on major industries of Pakistan
A brief introduction about the major/large scale industries of Pakistan is given along the following lines.
1. Textile Industry
The textile industry is the largest industry of Pakistan. At the time of partition, Pakistan received only 17 textile units in its share. The production of textile was very low and a large quantity of textile had to be imported to meet the domestic, requirements. Now, Pakistan is a prominent country for the production of textile. The textile industry accounts for 17.3% of value added, 32.2% of industrial employment and 60% of total exports. There were 354 mills operating in the textile industry in 2001-02. The installed capacity of spindles was 8841 thousand and installed capacity of looms was 10 thousand in the same year. The production of cloth was 558 million square meters by the organized mills sector. Various steps have been taken by the Government for the growth of the textile industry e.g. the provision of incentives, freedom to acquire technical assistance from abroad, directly financing institutions and improvements in management and labour efficiency etc.
2. Vegetable Ghee and Cooking Oil Industry
At the time of independence oil industry was very poor. Now there are 150 vegetable ghee and cooking oil factories in Pakistan. Out of these 26 are in the public sector with an installed capacity of 500 thousand tonnes of ghee and cooking oil. Total production of ghee and cooking oil was 774 thousand tonnes in 2001-02. A large quantity of cooking oil is imported to meet the domestic needs. The decline in the production of vegetable ghee is due to lower scale turnover and operational difficulties & closing down of two units in N.W.F.P.
3. Sugar Industry
In 1947, there were only 2 sugar factories in Pakistan, but at present there are 77 sugar factories in the industry. During the year 2001-02 total production of sugar was 3247 thousand tonnes. Revolutionary steps are required to expand the working capacity of this industry, which must be expanded and facilities should be provided to farmers for the production of better crops.
4. Fertilizer Industry
There are 10 fertilizer units (6 in the public sector and 4 in the private sector) in the country, having an installed capacity of 42,98,000 N. Tonnes (16,74,000 N. Tonnes in the public sector and 26,24,000 N. Tonnes is the private sector). Total production of fertilizers in 2001-02 was 5012 thousand tonnes. The low production was caused, by operational difficulties, decline in working hours and power failure/load shedding. A number of concessions are provided for the growth of this industry.
5. Cement Industry
At present 24 cement factories are operating in the country, out of these 4 factories are in public sector and 20 are in private sector. The installed capacity of cement is 16,300 thousand tonnes out of which 9935 thousand tonnes of cement was produced in 2001-02. This industry has been allowed duty free import of plant and machinery.
6. Chemical Industry
There are 12 chemical factories in the country producing, soda ash, sulphuric acid, caustic soda, chlorine gas and other chemicals. The contribution of the chemical industry towards GNP is only 3%. This industry is not fulfilling domestic requirements, so a large amount of foreign exchange is spent on the import of different chemicals every year.
7. Jute Industry
At the time of independence there was not a single jute factory in Pakistan. By the cooperation of PIDC, 32 factories were setup in East Pakistan and one in West Pakistan by the time of separation of East Pakistan in 1971. At present there are 12 Jute mills in the country. Total production of Jute goods was 81.7 thousand tonnes during 2001-02. Now a large quantity of Raw Jute is imported from China and Bangladesh every year to meet the domestic requirement.
8. Engineering Goods Industry
The engineering goods and capital goods produced domestically are very helpful for economic development of a country. This industry was given importance in the 3rd five year plan. Now we have 4 heavy engineering industries. There are
(1) Heavy Mechanical Complex, Texila
(2) Heavy Foundry Project, Taxila
(3) Pakistan Machine Tools Factory, Landhi
(4) Pakistan Steel Mills, Karachi.
All these are in the public sector. There are also a number of light and medium engineering goods industries producing a lot of items.
9. Ship Building Industry
Ships are constructed at Karachi. A number of small and large ships are made by Karachi yard and Engineering works. This factory was establised by PIDC. Now Pakistan is selling ships and boats abroad. In all the five year plans, this industry is given much importance.
10. Woolen and Worsted Textile Industry
There are 16 woolen mills in Pakistan. These are located at Karachi, Nowshera, Lawrencepur, Quaidabad and Hamai. This industry is not only meeting the worsted and woolen yam requirements of the country, but it is also exporting a large quantity of worsted cloth and carpets to foreign countries.
11. Cigarette Industry
At present 22 factories are producing cigarettes and Biri. Our country is self sufficient in the production of cigarettes. The raw tobacco used in the manufacturing of cigarettes is produced domestically. During the year 2001-02, 55,318 million cigarettes were produced in the country.