Q.3. Examine the ideology of Pakistan expounded by the Quaid-e-Azam and Allama Muhammad Iqbal.
Ideology of Pakistan and Quaid-e-Azam
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the great leader of Muslims of Sub Continent gave practical shape to the ideology give by the Allama Iqbal. He had a strong believe in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should launch joint efforts to get rid of British rule.
After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.
Address at Second Round Table Conference in 1931
Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the Second Round Table Conference in 1913
The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settle before the enforcement of and system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win the (Muslims) co-operation, any constitution you enforce shall not las for even 24 hours.
Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory
Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of Two Nation Theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. He said
Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.
He defined the two nation theory as
The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.
Address on 23rd March, 1940 – Pakistan Resolution
At the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said
The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation.
In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940, he said
India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of Nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belongs to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interdine and they belong to two different civilization which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.
Address on March 08, 1944
While addressing the students of Muslim University, he said
Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages, had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.
Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia
Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said
What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.
(Address at Islamia College Peshawar)
In 1946, Quaid-e-Azam declared
‘We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.
(Address on 18th June 1945)
In his message to the frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said
Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims ideology, which has to be preserved which has come to us a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, others will share with us.
The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted an established Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.
Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Statements of Allama Iqbal
Allama Iqbal, the poet, philosopher and a great thinker with the help of his poetry tried to awaken the Muslims of the sub-continent. He believed in the separate identity of Muslims as a nation.
In 1930, Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presidential address at Allahabad at the annual session of Muslim League. He said
I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States.
He also said
India is a continent of human beings belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions….., I, therefore demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam.
He stressed on the formation of a separate State by saying
I would like to see the Punjab, NorthWest Fronties Province, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single State self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West India Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of North West India.