Home » Class XII » XII Pakistan Studies » Initial Difficulties at the Establishment of Pakistan


The emergence of Pakistan,after a long and ardous freedom movement,was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life.The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life fre from Hindu or British dominance.Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August ,1947 said:

“My thoughts are with those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had,including their lives,to make Pakistan possible.”


From its very inception,Pakistan faced a large number of problems.Some of the initial difficulties were:

1.Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government

The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat,Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan.Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General ,Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected.Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.

2.Unfair Boundary Distrbution

A boundry commission was set up under a British Chairman,Sir Cyril Redcliff.He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur,Ferozpur,Jullander to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir.Quaid-e-Azam called it:
“An unjust,incomprehensible and even perverse award.”

3.The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India

On the birth of Pakistan,Hindus and Sikhs became more furious.In a planned move,Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives.Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan.Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.

4.Division of Military and Finantial Assets

In order to embarrass Pakistan financially ,India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits.Pakistan was promised to get Rs.750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million .Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets.This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.

5.Canal Water Dispute

Most of the river flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India.In 1948,india stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture.However on 9th September ,1960 on agreement called “Indus Basin Treaty” was signed between the two countries.

Kashmir Dispute

Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem.Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan becaouse at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim.The Hindu dogra rule ,who was secretly with the Govenment of Indiadeclared Kashmir as a part of India.Pakistan has continously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-coperation of India,Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.

7.Constitutional Problem

The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years.Lack of a permanent constitution created, chances of unsrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.

8.Annexation of Princely States

All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions.However,the fate of following states remained undecided.


The Muslim Nawab governing junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan.But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the stste by force in November,1947.

Hyderabad Deccan

Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent.But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian Government and Mount Batten .India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.

9.Electrcity Problem

Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and unfair demarcation,electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted ,because all power stations were at Mundi,a predominantly Muslim majority area,gifted to Bharat but Quiad-e-Azam said:

“If we are to exist as a nation ,we will have to face the problems with determination and force.”


Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances .It had no resources ,it had no resources,it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch.But Supreme efforts were made by the Quiad-e-Azam and his colligues to grapple with the situation .His golden principles “Unity ” “Faith” and “Discipline” gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country .In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948,he told the nation:

“The foundation of your state have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as you can.”

Fahim Patel

By Fahim Patel

Fahim Patel is the Content Manager of guesspapers.net. A graduate from Karachi University, he has intensive experience in content production.