Reference to the Context – Chapter 2
The given lines have been extracted from Pakistan and the Modern World, a fine example of oratory and a true chronicle of history. It is in fact a marvelous piece of speech delivered by the Quaid-e-Millat, Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, at the Kansas University in 1950 when the beloved leader paid a state visit to the U.S.A.
About the Speaker
Liaquat Ali Khan supported Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah during the crucial years of Muslim struggle for the birth of Pakistan. In 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of the Muslim homeland. He was a great patriot, who had deep compassion for human sufferings. He was awarded an honorary degree at the University of Kansas, USA for his remarkable services to his nation and to the cause of freedom and democracy.
About the Speach
According to the people and government of the United States, Liaquat Ali Khan, in this speech wants to acknowledge and thank them for the conferment of an honorary degree upon him. Since Pakistan was then not yet three years old, he thought it proper to introduce Pakistan to them. Befitting the occasion, he also thought it fit to describe the causes and the benefits of the division of vast sub continent and the creation of Pakistan. He describes the religious, social and economic differences with the Hindus, which forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. Finally he exhorts the West to held in the economic freedom and political stability of Asia. He also inspires the people of Pakistan to work harder at the double pace in order to catch up with the advance nation safeguard their independence and achieve their rightful and honorable place the4 the world.
“Progress and freedom, far from consisting in change, depends on memory. Those who can not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
____________ George Santayana
“As the day ————– minority.” or
“Long experience ————-change of masters.” or
“But since ——————— Eclipsed.”
Here, in these historical lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is advocating the cause of the Muslims minority against the dominating majority of the Hindus in the undivided India on the eve of independence from the British rule.
He says that when the time of freedom from the British rule drew at hand, it became more and more crystal clear that the Muslims were not going to enjoy the real fruits of freedom. On the contrary, they were afraid that they would be forced to live as a permanent group of defeated and subjected minority. Thus, freedom from the foreign rule would mean to the Muslims not freedom but only a change of the ruling hand. He draws this conclusion on the basis of their age-old experience testified by history since Muslims had been living with the Hindus for many centuries.
Liaquat Ali Khan also points out the fact that difference of religion between the two nations was not the only cause of division of India. The Muslims had a number of very serious differences with the Hindus nation such as difference of culture, ideology of life, social system, economic system and so on. The Muslims were monotheists and the Hindus believed in more than one God. They believed in caste system while the Muslims believed in equality of all men. The Muslims rightly feared that the Hindus majority would deny then basic human rights and treat them like slaves. They would have to live in the undivided India as a “perpetual political minority” having no hope, no respect and no future.
Liaquat Ali Khan is here trying to give vent to the genuine doubts and apprehensions. Muslims had about their political and economic future had they lived with the Hindus in the undivided India particularly after independence from the British rule.
“Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves.”
“It was for these reasons ——————- at that time.
Here in these pithy and powerful lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is trying to apprise the American people of the reasons for and exigencies behind the Muslims’s demand for a separate home of their own.
“We wanted a home,
Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
There is no place like home
All must have a home of their own.”
- J.H. Payne
He describes the differences of religion, culture and economic institutions, which had made it difficult for the Muslims to continue to live with the Hindus. Above everything, it was the fear of being reduced into a perpetual political minority that forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. According to him this demand was very genuine and reasonable as it was in the interest of both the Muslims and the Hindus. Above all, it was in the interest of the World peace. But Liaquat Ali Khan regrets that the Hindus leaders apposed this because it was against their dream of a greater India.
“How does it feel
To be without a home
Like a complete unknown
Like a rolling stone?”
- R.A. Zimmerman
The beloved leader is here leading the case of the Muslims and is justifying their demand on both human and geo-political grounds. Liaquat Ali Khan says:
“We believed then and we believe now that the demand of the Muslims in British India to have a separate state of their own was, both on human and geo-political grounds, a very reasonable demand.”
“For us to be undemocratic ———- Demand for Pakistan.”
Here in these searching lines, our beloved leader is trying to visualize the ethical basis and ideological grounds, which inspired the foundation of the new state of Pakistan. He says that Pakistan is based upon the belief in God, democracy, justice and peace. Muslims of South Asia demanded a separate homeland for themselves because they wanted to practice their faith and their believe.
“Man is by his constitution a religious animal.”
- Edmund Burk
Mr. Khan emphasizes that our people did not have to learn or acquire these beliefs, as they were latent in the very ideology. They demanded a new state because they wanted to practice these beliefs free from the close competition of dominating Hindu majority.
According to Mr. Khan Muslims cannot think of overlooking democracy and ignoring human rights. Similarly, they cannot submit to tyranny or aggression because this will mean denying the very ideals of Pakistan. The father of the nation also said:
“You are free, you are free to go to your mosques and to your temples, or to any place of worship in this state of Pakistan.”
- Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah
“What are the demands —————- Great purpose.”
Here in these pithy and powerful lines, the political pedagogue and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to visualize the duties and responsibilities of a free people who have achieved their freedom after a great deal of struggle and sacrifice.
“Liberty means responsibility. That is why most people dread it.”
– G.B Shaw
He asserts that it is the duty of all the free people in the World to maintain and safeguard their won feedom first. This according to hims is not selfishness or narrow-mindedness. He adds that if they fail in this duty, they desecrate and disgrace the piety of freedom. He exhorts the Muslims to be alert and watchful in order to keep their hard-earned freedom safe and secure. He also urges them to work hard at the double pace to achieve prosperity and strengthen the foundation of freedom. He emphasizes that today freedom has no real significance for the common people if it does not also mean freedom from want, ignorance and disease.
Liaquat Ali has here tried to give a new meaning and a new interpretation to the concept of freedom as viewed in the context of the fast changing conditions of the present day World.
“The Condition upon which God has given liberty is eternal vigilance.”
- I.P. Curran
“Our ancient steadfast faith ————- world peace itself.”
Here in these powerful pithy lines, the veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is describing the political, ideological and economic position of Pakistan as a newly independent state of Asia and is prescribing the formula of a happy marriage of faith and technology for rapid progress.
“Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.”
– Albert Einstein
He asserts that our old and firm faith is a source of great strength in this troubled period of human history. But he emphasizes that faith alone is not enough if we want to claim our rightful and honorable place in the World. We must also acquire the valuable knowledge of science and technology. He says that only a happy combination of science with the leading powers of scientific knowledge and modern World. This is the dictate of phase of progress and we can not hold the clock back. Liaquat Ali Khan, a true Muslim and a die hard patriot is trying to set the Muslims on the rails of modern science, the only way to progress and honorable existence in the World.
“Science without conscience is the death of the soul and leads to greed and pride.”
- Francois Rabelais
“We conceive the role —————– if at all.”
Here in these prophetic lines, the veteran leader and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to define and determine the role of the Western World in the present day political situation of the World.
According to him the West should demonstrate their broadminded approach and assist the newly independent states of Asia and Africa in their political stability and economic progress. It is the moral and the human duty of the rich and advanced nations to hold in the development of the poor and backward people. This is necessary because they themselves can not enjoy the fullest fruits of their own progress when more that half the World remains backward. The World can not be called truly civilized unless the light of modern knowledge of science reaches the door of every house in the World.
“The purpose of human existence is not ease or comfort but to kindle a light of joy in the dark World.”
- C.J. Jung
Liaquat Ali Khan is here exhorting the people of America and Europe to realize their duty and help the poor people in the name of humanity and for the sake of the world peace.
“Heal the sick, cleans the lepers, raise the fallen, cast out devil, freely you have received, freely you give to others.”
- The Bible